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What are the pros and cons of a high or low TPI (threads per inch) casings?

Lower TPI tyres have thicker cloth and the gaps between the threads are bigger. These take on more rubber as the tyre is made, making a heavier tyre but with sturdy, abrasion resistant sidewalls. A low TPI count is good for a downhill tyre.

Higher TPI tyres take less rubber to fill the gaps so give a lighter tyre with lower rolling resistance as a result of having more flexible (thinner) sidewalls. Also the smaller gaps between the threads make it harder for a thorn to penetrate the casing. For racing, touring, or any performance oriented tyre, a high TPI count is good.