Yes, sort of, with a road front derailleur.
When fitting a mountain bike crankset to a road bike (STI levers) we tried, first, changing the cranks/bottom bracket and the front derailleur so that we were using a front derailleur designed to work with the sprocket teeth numbers and combinations we were dealing with. But we couldn't get it to work. The derailleur does not move far enough with each shift at the levers.
We then re fitted the original road front derailleur (Tiagra in this case, combined with FC-M410 cranks, 22/32/44T, and with Tiagra 9-speed triple STI shifters) and, after trying for a while to locate it close to the chainrings but without jamming on the chainstays (not that easy - and we had to remove a bidon mount bolt and put the clamp straight over the top of the brazed on bidon mount - a bit messy) we found that it worked surprisingly well.
Our advice? Don't try this at home.